Saturday, June 17, 2017

「白色テロ」の系譜

Genealogy of White Terror

Terreur blanche (France)

L'expression de terreur blanche1, employée en référence à la Terreur de la Convention montagnarde, désigne les périodes de répression exercées généralement par des royalistes, dont la couleur emblématique est le blanc, contre leurs opposants.
La première « terreur blanche » se déroule dans le Sud-Est de la France, dans la vallée du Rhône, en 1795 où elle fait sans doute 2 000 morts2. En 1815, des groupes royalistes se livrent à des assassinats ou des massacres de militants, de personnalités révolutionnaires, de bonapartistes et de libéraux, avec la complicité des autorités qui mènent une répression légale.


The White Terror was a period during the French Revolution in 1795, when a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France. The victims of this violence were people identified as being associated with the Reign of Terror - followers of Robespierre and Marat, and members of local Jacobin clubs. The violence was perpetrated primarily by those whose relatives or associates had been victims of the Great Terror, or whose lives and livelihoods had been threatened by the government and its supporters before the Thermidorean Reaction.


Бе́лый терро́р

в Росси́и — совокупность крайних форм репрессивной политики антибольшевистских сил во время Гражданской войны (1917—1922), включающих принятие органами власти репрессивных актов и их практическую реализацию в виде радикальных мер, направленных против представителей советской власти, большевиков и сочувствующих им сил. К «белому террору» относятся и репрессивные действия вне рамок какого-либо законодательства со стороны военных и политических структур антибольшевистских движений различного толка. Отдельно от этих мер Белым движением применялась система превентивных мер террора как акции устрашения по отношению к сопротивляющимся группам населения на контролируемых им территориях в условиях чрезвычайных обстоятельств.

The White Terror in Russia refers to the organized violence and mass killings carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917–23). It began after the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917, and continued until the defeat of the White Army at the hands of the Red Army. The White Army had support from the Triple Entente and fought the Red Army for power, which engaged in its own Red Terror. According to some Russian historians, the White Terror was a series of premeditated actions directed by their leaders, although this view is contested by others. White Terror in Russia is estimated to have killed about 300,000 people in total.

臺灣白色恐怖時期


臺灣白色恐怖時期,指中國國民黨主政的中華民國政府在臺灣進行的白色恐怖統治,期間從1949年5月20日至1991年5月22日為止。中華民國臺灣省政府主席兼臺灣省警備總司令陳誠頒布《臺灣省戒嚴令》,宣告自1949年5月20日起在臺灣省全境實施戒嚴。同年5月24日經由立法院三讀通過《懲治叛亂條例》,為針對中國共產黨叛亂的特殊狀況,防止中國共產黨在臺灣的擴散,但事實上,國民黨政府卻藉此「特別刑法」剷除異己、鞏固威權體制的領導中心,對於批評或反對國民黨者、持不同政見者(如主張臺灣獨立、左翼等等)進行整肅迫害,任意冠上意圖顛覆政權之罪名,將刑罰範圍極度擴張。臺灣警備總司令部等情治單位藉由特別刑法充當政府整肅異己的工具,罔顧基本人權、民主、自由等、無所不在隨時隨地監控人民,對言行可疑人士或持不同政見者炮製假案、予以扣上匪諜的帽子,在全國各地濫捕、濫殺、刑求毆打及沒收財產,造成大量的冤死、冤獄、傷殘,人民的生命、財產、健康,以及心靈上遭受嚴重損害。

The term "White Terror" in its broadest meaning refers to the entire period from 1947 to 1987. Around 140,000 Taiwanese were imprisoned during this period, of which from about 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) government led by Chiang Kai-shek. Most actual prosecutions, though, took place in 1950–1952. Most of those prosecuted were labeled by the Kuomintang as "bandit spies" (匪諜), meaning spies for Chinese communists, and punished as such.


Stasi

Das MfS wurde am 8. Februar 1950 gegründet und entwickelte sich zu einem weitverzweigten, personalstarken Überwachungs- und Repressionsapparat, dem im Jahr 1989 etwa 91.000 hauptamtliche Mitarbeiter und rund 190.000 Inoffizielle Mitarbeiter (IM) angehörten. Letztere wurden aus allen Bevölkerungskreisen, teilweise mit Druckmitteln, als Spitzel angeworben. Innenpolitisch hatte das MfS Schutzfunktion staatlicher Organe und Personen. Aus der DDR-Bevölkerung gerieten Menschen ins Visier des MfS, wenn Verdacht auf politischen Widerstand gegen die SED, Spionage oder Republikflucht bestand. Methodisch setzte das MfS dabei Observation, Einschüchterung, Inhaftierung, sowie die sogenannte Zersetzung gegen Oppositionelle und Regimekritiker („feindlich-negative Personen“) als Mittel ein. In den 1950er Jahren wurde in Stasi-Gefängnissen noch physische Folter angewandt, später wurde mit ausgeklügelten psychologischen Methoden gearbeitet. In den 1980er Jahren bildete die Stasi wiederholt Terroristen der Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) im Umgang mit Waffen und Sprengstoffen aus.

One of its main tasks was spying on the population, mainly through a vast network of citizens turned informants, and fighting any opposition by overt and covert measures, including hidden psychological destruction of dissidents (Zersetzung, literally meaning decomposition). Its Main Directorate for Reconnaissance (German: Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung) was responsible for both espionage and for conducting covert operations in foreign countries.


COINTELPRO

COINTELPRO (a portmanteau derived from COunter INTELligence PROgram) was a series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting American political organizations.
FBI records show that COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed subversive, including anti-Vietnam War organizers, activists of the Civil Rights Movement or Black Power movement (e.g., Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Black Panther Party), feminist organizations, independence movements (such as Puerto Rican independence groups like the Young Lords), and a variety of organizations that were part of the broader New Left. White supremacist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, were also targeted.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover issued directives governing COINTELPRO, ordering FBI agents to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, neutralize or otherwise eliminate" the activities of these movements and especially their leaders. Under Hoover, the agent in charge of COINTELPRO was William C. Sullivan. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy personally authorized some of the programs. Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of Martin Luther King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so", Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.


Retrieved from "Wikipedia" on June 19, 2017.

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