Saturday, October 29, 2011

学習性無力感 [英]Learned Helplessness他

Russell A. Powell, et al.  Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3rd Edition. 2009

"Masserman’s Experimental Neurosis"「実験神経症」
As a general rule, traumatic symptoms are more easily induced in animals when the aversive stimulus is delivered in an environment that the animal has long associated with safety or some type of appetitive event.  For example, unpredictable shocks delivered in a setting in which the animal typically eats food are especially likely to induce neurotic symptoms (Masserman, 1943).  This suggests that symptoms of PTSD are more likely to arise when a person is, for example, unexpectedly attacked in the safety of his or her own home as opposed to a strange or dangerous area of town.  The person who is attacked at home generalizes the experience and perceives the world at large as a dangerous, unpredictable place, with the resultant that he or she thereafter remains constantly vigilant (369). 

"Learned Helplessness"「学習性無力感」
Learned Helplessness has also been related to certain forms of depression (Seligman, 1975).  People who suffer a series of uncontrollable aversive events – loss of a job, pysically illness, divorce, and so on – may become extremely passive and despondent.  Like animals exposed to inescapable shock, they show little interest in improving their lot in life (366).
Researchers have discovered a way to eliminate learned helplessness...behavioral treatments for depression often involve encouraging the patient to accomplish a graded series of tasks, starting with relatively minor task, such as writing a letter, and progressing to more difficult tasks, such as seeking a new job (Seligman, 1975).
Researchers also suggested…that a history of successfully overcoming minor adversities might immunize a person against depression when the person is later confronted by more serious difficulties (366-7)
 (Experiment of  Learned Helplessness by Nixon, Ph.D Developmental Psychologist at Penn State)

Sensitizatization is an increase in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.  For example, soldiers under attack generally do not habituate to the sound of artillery shells exploding nearby.  Instead, their startle reaction grows stronger.  Needless to say, this greatly contributes to the stress they experience and the inevitable breakdown virtually all soldiers suffer after repeated exposure to battle conditions (though Hollywood would often have you think otherwise)(97).

Watson and Rayner’s “Little Albert” 「アルバート坊や実験」

The importance of classical conditioning and overgeneralization in the development of phobia was first noted by John B. Watson and his student Rosalie Rayner.…they attempt[ed] to condition a fear response in an 11-month-old infant named Albert.

   Watson and Rayner (1920) paired the loud noise with the white rat (Neutral Stimulus).  Albert “jumped violently and fell forward, burying his face in the matress”...Albert was then subjected to further pairings of the rat with noise, during which he became more and more fearful. 

   Albert showed not only a fear of the rat but also of objects that were in some way similar to the rat, such as a rabbit, a fur coat, a dog, and even a Santa Claus mask.  In other words, Albert’s fear response had generalized to objects that were similar to the original CS (conditioned stimulus). 

  By contrast, real-life phobias usually require only one paring of the US (unconditioned stimulus) with the CS to become established, and they often grow stronger over time (182-5).  


Latent Inhibition
    The phenomenon whereby a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS than is an unfamiliar (novel) stimulus (151).


n said...


Middlemist, et al,1976 の実験にparuresis(Shy Bladder Syndrome)というのがあるようにトイレ時は誰でも最もプライバシーやパーソナルスペースを侵されたくない場のひとつだ。集団ストーカーが特にそれを好んで侵害するのも、実験神経症の考察にある通り、本来安全であるべき場のほうが被害者にPTSDを発症させやすいからに他ならない。

n said...

  2011年7­月12日午前1時5分ころ、 カリフォルニア州Temple Cityの

さらにクソを垂れるのを ノゾキ見していることをわざと本­人に知らせるためにクソが終わるタイミングに合わせて 大声を出したり、車­のエンジンを掛けたり切ったり、何か決まった音を毎回たてる。

毎日やってきて、特に夜中の午前1時前後に、 サイレンをちょうど家の前から鳴らし始め、 それもわざとやっているのがわかるように、1秒ごと小刻みに切ったり鳴らしたりを

精神のまともな皆さんにはとても信じられないだろうが、公務員も含めたこ­んな変態が(実際に数えたら)日に40~50人は、つきまとってくるのが 現代ロサンゼルス近郊で­は普通になっている

『拝啓 日本のギャングストーカー犯罪者の皆様』所収 "巨大な精神病院"

n said...


参照Powell et al. Introduction to Learning and Behavior, p369

n said...




n said...


 「It is not uncommon for a target to hear honking horns and occasionally fire enigine or ambulance sirens when he uses or flushes the toilet, or makes noise.」

David Lawson “Terrorist Stalking in America”

当資料集ブログ "新しいタイプの人権侵害・暴力"にも抜粋を掲載中


”取調室で警官怒号 ICレコーダーに録音…男性、2人告訴へ”





n said...


『ポジティブ病の国、アメリカ』 バーバラ・エーレンライク (著), 中島由華 (翻訳) 河出書房新社

n said...




n said...

当資料集ブログ『新しいタイプの人権侵害』にも掲載中の記事"The Experiment"には次のような告発も載っている:
"a mass suicide attempt at Guantánamo, in August, 2003, in which two dozen or so detainees tried to hang or strangle themselves, was provoked"



n said...


The following is a excerpt from an authentic website about this issue, gangstalking and sensitization. This site has been refered to for many years.

What are some techniques used against targets?

A few of the most common techniques are listed below.

a) Classical conditioning.

Getting a Targeted Individual sensitized to an everyday stimuli. The targeted individual over a period of months, or even years is negatively sensitised to an everyday stimuli, which is then used to harass them. It’s used out in public to let them know they are constantly being harassed and monitored. Some examples of everyday stimulus that might be used include: sounds, colors, patterns, actions. Eg. Red, white, yellow, strips, pens clicking, key jangling, loud coughing, loud whistling, loud smacking of clapping of hands together, cell phones, laptops, etc.